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A WORKING CHRONOLOGY OF THE ROYAL DYNASTIES OF KMT
BY RUNOKO RASHIDI
Nubian Dynasty (Qustul) Kingdom of Ta-Seti: ca. 3400 (?)–3200 B.C.E.
Kamite Dynasty I: ca. 3200(?)-2890 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
King Narmer (Menes) rules over united Kmt.
The White Wall (Memphis) is established as Kmt’s administrative capital.
Temples erected and dedicated to Ptah at the White Wall (Memphis) and Neit at Sau (Sais).
King Aha (`The Fighter’)
King Djer (Athothis) reigns 47 years.
Books written on anatomy.
King Den (Udimu) experiments with stone as a building material.
King Qaa reigns 25 years.
Dynasty II: ca. 2890-2686 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
King Nynetjer reigns approximately 38 years.
King Peribsen–Strong Advocate of Set
Kamite Monarchs of Dynasties I and II buried in mastaba tombs at Sakkara.
Royal cenotaphs (false tombs) constructed at Aabdju (Abydos)
Kamite Dynasty III: ca. 2686-2613 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
King Sanekht establishes a Kamite presence in the Sinai Peninsula.
Bedjmes (Noted Ship-Builder)
King Zoser-Construction of the ‘Step Pyramid’ (World’s first massive stone building).
Imhotep (Brilliant administrator, architect, author, physican and priest)
King Sekhemkhet begins the construction of a step pyramid at Sakkara.
King Khaba–Construction of the ‘Layer Pyramid’ at Zawiet et Aryan.
King Huni–Construction of a major pyramid at Meydum.
Important Gods: Aturn, Hathor, Horus. Neit, Ptah, Re and Set.
Kamite Dynasty IV: ca. 2613-2494 B.C.E.
King Nae-rnaet Sneferu–Construction of the ‘Bent Pyramid’ at Dahshur.
Construction of the ‘Northern Stone Pyramid’ (First true pyramid) at Dahshur.
Queen Hetepheres (Great Royal Wife of Sneferu; Mother of Khufu)
Military conflicts between Kmt and Ta-Seti.
Active commercial relations between Kmt and Phoenicia.
Military conflicts between Kmt and Libya.
King Khufu–Construction of the ‘Great Pyramid’ at Khem (Giza).
The Instruction of Prince Hardjedef recorded.
King Dedefre reigns eight years.
Rising power of the Priesthood of Re at Northern Ann (Heliopolis).
King Khafre–Construction of the ‘Second Pyramid’ of Khem (Giza).
Hor-m-akhet («Sphinx of Giza«) carved in the image of King Khafre.
Kinjh Menkaure–Construction of the ‘Third Pyramid’ of Khern (Giza).
King Shepseskaf–Buried in a distinct bomb known as ‘Mastabet el-Fara’un.
Hesyre (outstanding physician)
Kamite Dynasty V: ca. 2494-2345 B.C.E.
Heliopolitan Dynasty (Sons of Re)
King Userkaf–Introduction of sun-temples.
Construction of a pyramid at Sakkara.
King Sahure–Wars with Libyans
Construction of a pyramid at Djedu (Abusir).
Expedition to Punt (‘God’s Land’) on the Somali coast.
King Neferirkare Kakai–Construction of a pyramid at Djedu (Abusir).
The Royal Annals of the Palermo Stone inscribed.
King Shepseskare Isi reigns seven years.
The Admonitions of the Vizier Kagermri recorded.
King Nyuserre–Construction of a pyramid at Djedu (Abusir).
Construction of a splendid stone sun-temple at Abu Ghurab.
King Menkauhor Akauhor reigns eight years.
King Djedkare Isesi reigns 39 years.
Construction of the ‘Pyramid of the Sentinel.’
Construction of the last known sun-temple.
Expedition to Punt (‘God’s Land’) on the Somali coast.
The Maxims of Ptahhoteh recorded.
King Unas inscribes his tomb with the earliest known Pyramid Texts.
Kamite Dynasty VI: ca. 2345-2181 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
King Seheteptowy Teti reigns twelve years.
Weni (Governor of Upper Kmt)
King Merire Pepi I reigns 49 years.
Major African military operations against Asiatics.
King Merenre Antyemsaf I journeys to the First Cataract to meet the Nubian monarchs.
Harkhuf, the Kemetic governor of Ta-Seri, leads four expeditions to Yarn (Inner Africa).
King Neferkare Pepi II reigns longer (94 years) than any monarch in history.
Tax immune status granted to the Temple of Min at Gebtu (Koptos).
Queen Regent Nitocris
Climatic conditions worsen steadily; Usurpation of power by provincial leaders.
Dynasty VI Monarchs buried in small pyramid tombs at Djedu (Abusir) and Sakkara.
Important Gods: Atum, Hathor, Horns, Isis, Min, Neit, Osiris, Ptah, Re and Sebek.
Kamite Dynasty VII: ca. 2181-2173 B.C.E.
King Neferkare (‘The Younger’)
King Neferkare Neby
King Djedkare Shemay
King Neferkare Khendu
King Neferkare Tereru
Appearance of early Coffin Texts in Kamite tombs.
Kamite Dynasty VIII: ca. 2173-2160 B.C.E.
King Wadjkare Pepysonbe reigns four years.
King Neferkamin Anu reigns two years.
King Kahare Ibi–Construction of a small pyramid near Sakkara
King Neferkare reigns two years.
King Neferkauhor Kapuibi reigns for little more than a year.
Kmt experiences widespread internal disorder; Asiatics settle in Northern Kmt.
Kamite Dynasty IX (Selected Monarchs)
Herakleopolitan Dynasty House of Akhtoy
King Kheti I
King Kheti II
Kamite Dynasty X (Selected Monarchs)
Herakleopolitan Dynasty House of Akhtoy
King Kheti III
Kamite Dynasty XI: ca. 2130-1991 B.C.E .
King Tepya Mentuhotep I
King Sehertowy Intef I
King Wahankh Intef If
King Nakhmebepnefer Intef III
King Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II reunites Kmt in 2040 B.C.E.
Waset (Thebes) becomes the Kamite capital.
Queen Ashayet (Great Royal Wife of Mentuhotep II)
Queen Kawit (Great Royal Wife of Mentuhotep II)
Asiatics driven from Kmt’s Eastern Delta.
Reestablishment of strong central monarchy.
Construction of a distinct rock-cut tomb surmounted by a pyramid at Waset.
King Sankhkare Mentuhotep III–Major expedition to Punt on the Somali Coast.
King Nebtowyre Mentuhotep IV reigns briefly.
Amenemhet (Vizier of Kmt during the reign of Nebtowyre Mentuhotep IV)
Widespread democratization of Kamite religious beliefs.
Important Gods: Amen, Hathor, Montu, Osiris and Re.
Kamite Dynasty XII: 1991-1786 B.C.E.
King Sehetepibre Amenemhet I moves the capital of Kmt north to It-Tawy.
Queen Neferu (Great Royal Wife of Amenenhet I)
King Kheperkare Senusret I orders the Temple of Amen at Ipet-sut (Karnak) rebuilt in stone .
Red granite obelisks erected at Northern Anu (Heliopolis).
Major expedition to Punt (‘God’s Land’) on the Somali Coast.
The Story of Sunuhe composed.
King Nubkaure Amenemhet II dedicates a temple in Sinai to the goddess Hathor.
Construction of ‘The White Pyramid’ at Dahshur.
Regular commercial relations with Punt.
King Khakheperre Senusret II–Kemetic relations with Minoan Crete.
Construction of ‘The Shining Pyramid’ at El Lahun.
Queen Nefert (Great Royal Wife of Senusret II)
Resumption of expeditions to Punt on the Somali Coast.
King Khakaure Senusret III–Military campaigns against Nubians and Asiatics.
Erection of strong Kamite defensive fortifications along the Nubian frontier.
Major reorganization of Kmt’s administrative system.
King Nymare Amenemhet III reigns 47 years.
Construction of ‘The Black Pyramid’ at Dahshur.
Construction of a major pyramid at Haware.
Construction of the `Egyptian Labyrinth’ (The largest building in antiquity).
Exploitation of copper mines in the Sinai Peninsula.
Massive irrigation and land reclamation projects in the Fayum Oasis.
King Makherure Amenemhet IV reigns eight years.
Queen Regent Sobkkare Sebeknefrure (Daughter of Amenemhet III)
Kamite Monarchs of Dynasty XII buried in pyramid tombs near Ineb-hedj (Memphis).
Kamite,Dynasty XIII: ca. 1786-1700 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
King Sebekhotep I reigns five years.
King Awibre Hor reigns only seven months.
King Userkare Khendjer–Construction of a small pyramid near Dahshur.
King Khasekhemre Neferhotep I reigns eleven years.
King Khaneferre Sebekhotep IV reigns eight years.
King Khahetepre Sebekhotep VI reigns four years,
King Wahibre Yayebi reigns ten years.
King Merneferre Iy reigns 23 years.
King Nehesi reigns in Southern Kmt.
Important Gods: Amen, Hathor, Montu, Osiris, Re and Sebek.
Kamite Dynasty XIV: ca. 1730-1680 B.C.E.
(?) Memphite Dynasty
Few significant monuments constructed; Collapse of central government.
Asiatic Hyksos invade from the East and occupy Kmt for more than a century.
Dynasty XV: ca. 1730-1680 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
King Apophis I
King Apophis II
Dynasty XVI: ca. 1680-1560 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
Hyksos Dynasty (Authority limited to Northern Kmt)
King Apophis III
Nubians ransack and burn Kemetic fortresses in Ta-Seti
Dynasty XVII: ca. 1650-1560 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs)
Kamite Waset Dynasty (Authority limited to Southern Kmt)
King Nubkheperre Intef VI
The scribe Ahmose copies the Rhind Mathematical Fapvrus.
King Seqenenre Tao I (‘The Elder’)-Queen Tetisheri
King Seqenere Tao II (‘The Brave’)-Queen Ahhotep I
King Wadjkheperre Kamose escalates Kmt’s war of liberation against Hyksos.
Kamite Dynasty XVIII: ca. 1560-1295 B.C.E.
King Nebpehtyre Ahmose I (‘The Liberator’)–Queen Ahmose-Nefertari
Expulsion of Hyksos; Reunification of Kmt.
Queen Regent Ahmose-Nefertari
King Djeserkare Amenhotep I reigns twenty years.
Amen becomes the state god of Kmt.
King Akheperkare Thutmose I extends Kamite military power to the River Euphrates.
King Akheperenre Thutmose II reigns four years.
Makare Hatshepsut (‘The Female Horus’) reigns 21 years.
Major expedition to Punt (`God’s Land’) on the Somali coast.
Senemut (Overseer of Works during the reign of Hatshepsut)
Nehesi (Chief Treasurer of Kmt during the reign of Hatshepsut)
Enormous obelisks raised at Ipet-sut (Karnak).
Senenmut designs a distinct mortuary temple for Hatshepsut at Waset.
King Menkheperre Thutmose III directs the furthest extensions of Kamite military power.
General Amenemhab (Superior Army Officer and Confidant to King Thutmose III)
Kamite relations with Minoan Crete.
Expedition to Punt (‘God’s Land’) on the Somali coast.
Table of Karnak King-List recorded.
King Akheprure Amenhotep II continues the military policies of Thutmose III.
Commercial relations with Punt.
King Menkheprure Thutmose IV–Evcavation of Hor-m-akhet (Sphinx of Giza).
King Nebmare Amenhotep III (`The Magnificent’) reigns 38 years.
Queen Tiye (Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep III ; Mother of Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten)
Construction of the ‘Colossi of Memnon.’
Kmt achieves enormous power and prosperity.
King Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten renounces Amen; Aten established as the sole god.
Queen Nefertiti (Great Royal Wife of Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten)
Kamite capital transferred to Akhetaten (El Amarna).
Naturalism adopted in Kemetic art.
Ankhkheprure Smenkare (Coregent for three years with Akhenaten)
King Nebkheprure Tutankhamen restores the national supremacy of Amen.
Kamite capital returned to Waset.
King Kheperkheprure Ay reigns two years.
King Djeserkheprure Horemheb–Strong Advocate of Amen
Important Gods: Amen, Amen-Re, Aten, Hathor, Isis, Osiris, Ptah and Thoth.
Kamite Dynasty IXX: ca. 1295-1187 B.C.E.
King Menpehtyre Ramses I has brief reign.
King Memrnare Seti I (‘Bringer of the Renaissance’)
Military campaigns against Libyans and Hittites.
Queen Tuya (Great Royal Wife of Seti I: Mother of Ramses II)
Construction of the ‘Osireion’ temple at Aabdju (Abydos).
Table of Abydos King-List recorded.
King Usermare Ramses II (‘Ramses the Great’) reigns 67 years.
Queen Nefertari (Great Royal Wife of Ramses II)
Queen Istnofret (Great Wife of Ramses II, Mother of Khaemwaset and Merneptah)
Kamite capital relocated to Pi-Ramses in the Eastern Delta.
Historic battle of Kadesh fought along the banks of the River Orontes in Syria.
Historic peace treaty concluded between Kmt and the kingdom of Hatti.
Construction of the ‘Ramesseum’ (The mortuary temple of Ramses II).
The Tale of the Two Brothers (A Kamite fairy tale) composed.
Prince Khaemwaset (Administrator, archaeologist, magician and high priest of Ptah)
Construction of major temples in Ta-Seti (Lower Nubia).
Commercial relations with Punt (‘God’s Land’) on the Somali coast.
Prince Khaemwaset repairs numerous Old Kingdom pyramids and sun-temples.
Turin Canon of Kings recorded.
King Baenre Merneptah repels a major invasion of Kmt by the Sea Peoples.
Revolt in Ta-Seti crushed.
King Menmire Atnenmesses reigns briefly.
King Userkheprure Seti II–Queen Tawosre (Great Royal Wife of Seti II)
King Siptah reigns six years.
Queen Regent Tawosre reigns eight years.
Kamite Dynasty XX: ca. 1187-1080 B.C .E. (Selected Monarchs)
King Userkhaure Sethnakhte reigns two years.
King Usermare-Meryamen Ramses III repels three invasions of Libyans and Sea Peoples.
Major expedition to Punt (‘God’s Land’) on the Somali coast.
Kmt experiences prolonged labor troubles and turbulence among government workers.
Kmt experiences an inflationary rise in wheat prices.
Kmt experiences a sharp decline in the value of copper and bronze.
King Hiqmare Ramses IV reigns six years.
Gradual weakening of central authority.
Kamite royal tombs robbed with impunity by high officials.
King Neferkare Ramses IX reigns nineteen years.
Kmt experiences severe famine.
Craft of mummification reaches its zenith.
King Ramses XI proclaims a Kamite renaissance.
Herihor rules over Upper Kmt and Ta-Seti.
Smendes rules over Lower Kmt.
Kamite Monarchs of Dynasties XVIII–XX buried in rock-cut bombs at Waset.
The Book of the Dead found in Kamite tombs.
Important Gods: Amen, Amen-Re, Hathor, Khonsu, Mut, Osiris, Ptah and Set.
Kamite Dynasty XXI: ca. 1080 B.C.E.–945 B.C.E. (Selected Monarchs) Waset/Tanite Dynasty (Authority divided between Theban Priesthood and Delta Princes)
Herihor (First Prophet of Amen)
The Journev of Wenamen to Phoenicia composed.
Pinudjem I (First Prophet of Amen)
Menkheperre (First Prophet of Amen)
Pinudjem II (First Prophet of Amen)
Tanite Monarchs of Kamite Dynasty XXI buried in sunken tombs in the Eastern Delta.
Kamite Dynasty XXII: ca. 945–817 B.C.E.
King Sheshonq I attacks Palestine and plunders Jerusalem.
King Osorkon I
King Takelot I
King Osorkon II
Civil war rages intermittently in Kmt for 25 years.
King Sheshonq II
The power of Assyria grows steadily.
King Takelot II
King Sheshonq III reigns 52 years.
Prince Osorkon becomes First Prophet of Amen at Waset.
King Sheshonq IV
Kamite relations with Spain.
Kamite capitals at Dja’net (Tanis) and Bast (Bubastis).
Kamite Dynasty XXIII: ca. 817(?)-7311 B.C.E.
King Pedibast I
Local rulers proliferate in Kmt.
Kamite capital at Nay-to-hut (Leontopolis)
Kamite Dynasty XXIV: ca. 730-715 B.C.E.
King Tefnakhte makes a treaty with Hosea of Samaria against Assyria.
King Bakenrenef (Boccaoris) supports the King of Israel against Assyria.
Kamite Dynasty XXV: ca. 750-656 B.C.E.
Amenirdas I (Divine Wife of the God Amen)
King Piye (Piankhi) conquers Upper and Lower Kmt; Rules from Kush.
King Shabaka completes the total reunification of Kmt; Rules from Waset.
Recording of the ancient creation story known as the Memphite Theology.
Prince Taharqa commands African invasion of Spain.
King Shabataka–Introduction of demotic script.
Capitals at Ineb-hedj (Memphis), Waset and Napata.
King Taharqa commands African military campaign in Palestine.
Assyrian armies invade Kmt and sack Ineb-hedj (Memphis) in 671 B.C.E.
Assyrian armies invade Kmt and sack Waset in 663 B.C E.
King Tanwetamani severely defeated by Assyrians.
Kushite Monarchs of Dynasty XXV buried in pyramid tombs at El Kurru and Nuri.
Kamite Dynasty XXVI: ca. 656-525 B.C.E.
King Psametik I
Kamite military defeated by Babylonians at Carchemish
Kamite naval exploration of African coasts.
King Psametik II
Thales in Kmt.
King Ahmose II (Amasis)
Pythagoras in Kmt.
King Psametik III
Deification of Imhotep.
Jeremiah in Kmt.
Dynasty XXVI Monarchs buried in the Temple of Neit at Sau (Sais) .
Persian invasion and conquest of Kmt under Cambyses II in 525 B.C.E.
Kmt incorporated into the Persian Empire
Dynasty XXVII: 525-404 B.C.E.
Herodotus in Kmt.
Kamite capital at Susa or Babylon.
Kamite Dynasty XXVIII: ca. 404-390 B.C.E.
Saite Dynasty (The Amyrtaios)
Kamite Dynasty XXIX: ca. 390(?)-378 B.C.E.
King Nepherites I
King Nepherites II
Plato in Kmt.
Kamite Dynasty XXX: ca. 378-341 B.C.E.
Last Native Kamite Dynasty
King Nectanebo I
Kamite capital at Tjebnutjer (Sebennytos) .
Greek invasion and occupation of Kmt under Alexander of Macedon in 322 B.C.E.
Ptolemy I (Soter)
Alexandria becomes the Kemetic administrative capital.
Manetho (Famous African Scholar-Priest) writes a History of Egypt (Aegvtiaca) in which he divides the Kemetic royal families into dynasties.
Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) opens ports at Arsinoe, Myos Hormos and Berenice.
Alexandrian Museum and Library founded.
Eratosthenes (Celebrated African Scholar and the First Librarian at Alexandria) accurately charts the earth’s circumference and writes the Canon of the Kings of Thebes.
Construction of the temples at Edfu, Esna, Philae, and Kom Ombo.
The Rosetta Stone (A bilingual decree of Ptolemy IV) inscribed in 196 B.C.E
Cleopatra VII commits suicide.
Augustus Caesar claims Kmt as a province of the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.E.